A.Define the Following
Evolution is the change in heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Microliths are small stone tools that were produced by humans during the Paleolithic era, which lasted from about 2.6 million years ago to around 10,000 BCE.
The Neolithic Age, also known as the New Stone Age, was a period in human history that began around 10,000 BCE and lasted until about 4,500 BCE.
The Copper-Stone Age, also known as the Chalcolithic Age or Eneolithic Age, was a period in human history that occurred after the Neolithic Age, around 4500 BCE to 3300 BCE.
B.Write short answer for the following questions.
- How do we know that early humans were skillful artists?
Early humans left behind numerous examples of intricate and sophisticated artwork, such as cave paintings, carvings, and sculptures, which demonstrate their skill and creativity. These artworks provide evidence of early human cultural and social development, and offer insights into their beliefs, values, and daily lives. The techniques used in early human art also reveal a level of technical expertise and aesthetic sensitivity that is indicative of a rich artistic tradition.
- Why is the early history of man called the Stone Age?
The early history of man is called the Stone Age because it is characterized by the use of stone tools and weapons by early human populations.
- Where did early humans live? What did they wear ?
Early humans lived in various regions of the world, including Africa, Europe, and Asia. They lived in caves, rock shelters, and simple dwellings made from materials such as mud, wood, and animal skins. Early humans likely wore clothing made from animal hides and furs, although the specifics varied depending on the region and climate.
- Which tools were made by humans in Palaeolithic Age?
Humans in the Paleolithic Age made a variety of stone tools, including handaxes, choppers, scrapers, and blades, which were used for a range of activities such as hunting, butchering, and preparing food.
D.Answer the following questions in detail
- In what way did the wheel help early humans ?
The wheel helped early humans by revolutionizing transportation and enabling the movement of goods and people more efficiently. It allowed for the development of carts, wagons, and chariots, facilitating trade, agriculture, and exploration. The wheel also made it easier to construct pottery, as pottery wheels simplified the shaping and smoothing of clay vessels. Overall, the wheel significantly improved the mobility and productivity of early human societies.
What was the impact of farming on the life of the neolithic period?
The impact of farming on the Neolithic period was profound. It brought about a shift from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle to settled agricultural communities. Farming provided a more reliable and consistent food source, allowing for larger populations to sustain themselves. It led to the development of permanent settlements, the establishment of social structures, and the emergence of specialized occupations. Farming also brought about the domestication of animals, which provided additional resources such as milk, meat, and labor. The transition to farming marked a significant turning point in human history, laying the foundation for the development of civilizations.
In what ways did fire prove useful to the early people?
Fire proved useful to early people in several ways. Firstly, it provided warmth and protection against cold climates and predators, allowing early humans to inhabit new environments. Fire also served as a source of light, extending the productive hours of the day. It was essential for cooking food, making it more digestible and safer to consume by killing bacteria and parasites. Additionally, fire was used for clearing land for agriculture, creating tools and weapons through heat treatment of materials, and as a means of signaling and communication. Overall, fire played a crucial role in the survival, adaptation, and progress of early human societies.
Explain in ways in which lives of Neolithic people were different from Palaeolithic People.
Neolithic people lived settled lives, practiced agriculture, and domesticated animals, while Paleolithic people were nomadic hunter-gatherers, relying on hunting and gathering for sustenance.